This paper examines incidents occurring in the 20th century onward, with particular focus, though not exclusively, on the destruction of cultural heritage institutions and sites during World War II, the breakup of Yugoslavia and subsequent civil wars, and the current conflicts in Iraq and Syria. Through these examples, I intend to discuss various preventive measures employed in the face of different situations, evaluate and compare the successes and failures in each instance, and suggest ways that further destruction can be avoided.